Automated and quantitative microscopy of intracellular trafficking

Research Focus

The Sodeik team investigates the cell biology of human pathogenic herpes simplex virus in epithelial cells, neurons and dendritic cells that are also infected during the natural HSV1-induced diseases. Using biochemical, cell biological, pharmacological and siRNA silencing approaches, we are characterizing the relevant interactions between viral and host proteins that are required for expression by a HSV1-based vector or by the infectious HSV1 pathogen. Our aims are to eliminate potential barriers that may limit the expression of therapeutic molecules by HSV1-based vectors. Furthermore, our studies contribute to the identification of essential HSV1 host interactions that may be used as new target structures for the development of new antiviral therapies.


  • Prof. L. Pelkmans, ETH Zürich, Switzerland, Genomewide siRNA Screens to identify host barriers to efficient expression of therapeutic proteins using HSV based vectors
  • Prof. Ileana Cristea, Princeton University, Quantitative Mass Spectrometry of HSV1 viral-host protein complexes
  • Prof. V. Hukkanen, University of Turku, Finland, Gene therapy of autoimmune CNS disease using replicative HSV vectors
  • Dr. Rudolf Bauerfeind, Hannover Medical School, The role of tegument proteins for HSV1 assembly
  • Prof. G. Behrens, REBIRTH Unit Engineered antigen-presenting cells and artificial lymph nodes, Hannover Medical School, The cell entry of HSV1 in dendritic cells
  • Prof. Dr. A. Schambach, Prof. C. Baum, REBIRTH Unit Regenerative Gene Therapy, Hannover Medical School, Cell entry and nuclear import of lentiviral vectors
  • Prof. M. Messerle, Hannover Medical School, BAC based mutagenesis of HSV

Further Research Projects

  • DFG ERANET: NanoSci+: Nanocommunication: How viral particles convince cells to let them inside (DFG So403/4) together with G. Wuite (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam), K. Grünewald (University of Oxford, UK) and A. Harel (Technion University, Haifa) 
  • DFG SFB 900: Chronic Infections: Microbial Persistence and its Control, TP C2 Establishing a Persistent Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Peripheral Nerve Ganglia
  • N-RENNT – Niedersachsen-Research Network on Neuroinfektiology, “Host-Pathogen Interactions in HSV infected neurons and immune cells


  • Beate Sodeik is responsible for teaching ‘Virology’ in the Master programs BIOMEDICINE and BIOCHEMISTRY at Hannover Medical School. Moreover she offers lectures, tutorials and practical courses within the structured Ph.D. programs Molecular Medicine and Infection Biology of the HBRS (Hannover Biomedical School).


2013 - ongoing


Döhner K, Ramos-Nascimento A, Bialy D, Anderson F, Hickford-Martinez A, Rother F, Koithan T, Rudolph K, Buch A, Prank U, Binz A, Hügel S, Lebbink RJ, Hoeben RC, Hartmann E, Bader M, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons. PLoS Pathogens. 2018;14(1):e1006823.


Buch A, Müller O, Ivanova L, Döhner K, Bialy D, Bosse JB, Pohlmann A, Binz A, Hegemann M, Nagel C-H, Koltzenburg M, Viejo-Borbolla A, Rosenhahn B, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Inner tegument proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus are sufficient for intracellular capsid motility in neurons but not for axonal targeting. PLoS Pathogens. 2017;13(12):e1006813.

Bauer D, Alt M, Dirks M, Buch A, Heilingloh CS, Dittmer U, Giebel B, Gorgens A, Palapys V, Kasper M, Eis-Hubinger AM, Sodeik B, Heiligenhaus A, Roggendorf M, Krawczyk A. A Therapeutic Antiviral Antibody Inhibits the Anterograde Directed Neuron-to-Cell Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus and Protects against Ocular Disease. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2115. Epub 2017/11/23.

Kopfnagel V, Wagenknecht S, Harder J, Hofmann K, Kleine M, Buch A, Sodeik B, Werfel T. RNase 7 strongly promotes TLR9-mediated DNA sensing by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2017. Epub 2017/11/22.

Kutle I, Sengstake S, Templin C, Glass M, Kubsch T, Keyser KA, Binz A, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B, Cicin-Sain L, Dezeljin M, Messerle M. The M25 gene products are critical for the cytopathic effect of mouse cytomegalovirus. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):15588. Epub 2017/11/16.

Budida R, Stankov MV, Dohner K, Buch A, Panayotova-Dimitrova D, Tappe KA, Pohlmann A, Sodeik B, Behrens GMN. Herpes simplex virus 1 interferes with autophagy of murine dendritic cells and impairs their ability to stimulate CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47(10):1819-34. Epub 2017/08/05.

Gonzalez-Motos V, Jurgens C, Ritter B, Kropp KA, Duran V, Larsen O, Binz A, Ouwendijk WJD, Lenac Rovis T, Jonjic S, Verjans G, Sodeik B, Krey T, Bauerfeind R, Schulz TF, Kaufer BB, Kalinke U, Proudfoot AEI, Rosenkilde MM, Viejo-Borbolla A. Varicella zoster virus glycoprotein C increases chemokine-mediated leukocyte migration. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13(5):e1006346. Epub 2017/05/26.

Snijder J, Radtke K, Anderson F, Scholtes L, Corradini E, Baines J, Heck AJR, Wuite GJL, Sodeik B, Roos WH. Vertex-Specific Proteins pUL17 and pUL25 Mechanically Reinforce Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. J Virol. 2017;91(12). Epub 2017/04/07.

Buchmann B, Dohner K, Schirdewahn T, Sodeik B, Manns MP, Wedemeyer H, Ciesek S, von Hahn T. A screening assay for the identification of host cell requirements and antiviral targets for hepatitis D virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2017;141:116-23. Epub 2017/02/23.

Khadivjam B, Stegen C, Hogue-Racine MA, El Bilali N, Dohner K, Sodeik B, Lippe R. The ATP-Dependent RNA Helicase DDX3X Modulates Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Gene Expression. J Virol. 2017;91(8). Epub 2017/02/06.


Wnek M, Ressel L, Ricci E, Rodriguez-Martinez C, Guerrero JC, Ismail Z, Smith C, Kipar A, Sodeik B, Chinnery PF, Solomon T, Griffiths MJ. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132(3):433-51.

Ivanova L, Buch A, Dohner K, Pohlmann A, Binz A, Prank U, Sandbaumhuter M, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Conserved Tryptophan Motifs in the Large Tegument Protein pUL36 Are Required for Efficient Secondary Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. Journal of virology. 2016;90(11):5368-83.

Brunnemann AK, Liermann K, Deinhardt-Emmer S, Maschkowitz G, Pohlmann A, Sodeik B, Fickenscher H, Sauerbrei A, Krumbholz A. Recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains with targeted mutations relevant for aciclovir susceptibility. Scientific reports. 2016;6:29903.

Ashford P, Hernandez A, Greco TM, Buch A, Sodeik B, Cristea IM, Grunewald K, Shepherd A, Topf M. HVint: A Strategy for Identifying Novel Protein-Protein Interactions in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP. 2016;15(9):2939-53.


Veloso Alves Pereira I, Buchmann B, Sandmann L, Sprinzl K, Schlaphoff V, Dohner K, Vondran F, Sarrazin C, Manns MP, Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira C, Sodeik B, Ciesek S, von Hahn T. Primary Biliary Acids Inhibit Hepatitis D Virus (Hdv) Entry into Human Hepatoma Cells Expressing the Sodium-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (Ntcp). PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117152. Epub 2015/02/04.

Krawczyk A, Dirks M, Kasper M, Buch A, Dittmer U, Giebel B, Wildschutz L, Busch M, Goergens A, Schneweis KE, Eis-Hubinger AM, Sodeik B, Heiligenhaus A, Roggendorf M, Bauer D. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody. PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116800.

Funk C, Ott M, Raschbichler V, Nagel C-H, Binz A, Sodeik B, Bauerfeind R, Bailer SM. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Pul31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain. PLoS Pathogens. 2015;11(6):e1004957.

Bosse JB, Hogue IB, Feric M, Thiberge SY, Sodeik B, Brangwynne CP, Enquist LW. Remodeling Nuclear Architecture Allows Efficient Transport of Herpesvirus Capsids by Diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(42):E5725-33. Epub 2015/10/07.


Schomaker M, Heinemann D, Kalies S, Willenbrock S, Murua Escobar H, Buch A, Sodeik B, Ripken T, Meyer H, editors. Mechanistic Investigations and Molecular Medicine Applications of Gold Nanoparticle Mediated (Gnome) Laser Transfection. 2014.

Radtke K, Anderson F, Sodeik B. A Precipitation-Based Assay to Analyze Interactions of Viral Particles with Cytosolic Host Factors. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1144:191-208.

Nagel CH, Pohlmann A, Sodeik B. Construction and Characterization of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (Bacs) Containing Herpes Simplex Virus Full-Length Genomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1144:43-62.

Kelly BJ, Bauerfeind R, Binz A, Sodeik B, Laimbacher AS, Fraefel C, Diefenbach RJ. The Interaction of the Hsv-1 Tegument Proteins Pul36 and Pul37 Is Essential for Secondary Envelopment During Viral Egress. Virology. 2014;454-455:67-77.

Devadas D, Koithan T, Diestel R, Prank U, Sodeik B, Dohner K. Herpes Simplex Virus Internalization into Epithelial Cells Requires Na+/H+ Exchangers and P21-Activated Kinases but Neither Clathrin- nor Caveolin-Mediated Endocytosis. J Virol. 2014;88(22):13378-95.

Anderson F, Savulescu AF, Rudolph K, Schipke J, Cohen I, Ibiricu I, Rotem A, Grünewald K, Sodeik B, Harel A. Targeting of Viral Capsids to Nuclear Pores in a Cell-Free Reconstitution System. Traffic. 2014;15(11):1266-81.


Schudt G, Kolesnikova L, Dolnik O, Sodeik B, Becker S. Live-Cell Imaging of Marburg Virus-Infected Cells Uncovers Actin-Dependent Transport of Nucleocapsids over Long Distances. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(35):14402-7.

Sandbaumhuter M, Dohner K, Schipke J, Binz A, Pohlmann A, Sodeik B, Bauerfeind R. Cytosolic Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Not Only Require Binding Inner Tegument Protein Pul36 but Also Pul37 for Active Transport Prior to Secondary Envelopment. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15(2):248-69.

Nygardas M, Paavilainen H, Muther N, Nagel CH, Roytta M, Sodeik B, Hukkanen V. A Herpes Simplex Virus-Derived Replicative Vector Expressing Lif Limits Experimental Demyelinating Disease and Modulates Autoimmunity. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e64200.

Lin AE, Greco TM, Dohner K, Sodeik B, Cristea IM. A Proteomic Perspective of Inbuilt Viral Protein Regulation: Pul46 Tegument Protein Is Targeted for Degradation by Icp0 During Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12(11):3237-52.

Borst EM, Kleine-Albers J, Gabaev I, Babic M, Wagner K, Binz A, Degenhardt I, Kalesse M, Jonjic S, Bauerfeind R, Messerle M. The Human Cytomegalovirus Ul51 Protein Is Essential for Viral Genome Cleavage-Packaging and Interacts with the Terminase Subunits Pul56 and Pul89. J Virol. 2013;87(3):1720-32. Epub 2012/11/24.

2006 - 2012


Voelkel C, Galla M, Dannhauser PN, Maetzig T, Sodeik B, Schambach A, Baum C. Pseudotype-Independent Nonspecific Uptake of Gammaretroviral and Lentiviral Particles in Human Cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2012;23(3):274-86. Epub 2011/10/21.

Stankov MV, Panayotova-Dimitrova D, Leverkus M, Vondran FW, Bauerfeind R, Binz A, Behrens GM. Autophagy Inhibition Due to Thymidine Analogues as Novel Mechanism Leading to Hepatocyte Dysfunction and Lipid Accumulation. AIDS. 2012;26(16):1995-2006. Epub 2012/08/24.

Sodeik B, Messerle M, Schulz TF. Herpesviren. In: Suerbaum S, Hahn H, Burchard G-D, Kaufmann SE, Schulz T, editors. Medizinische Mikrobiologie Und Infektiologie: Springer Berlin Heidelberg; 2012. p. 540-61.

Snijder B, Sacher R, Ramo P, Liberali P, Mench K, Wolfrum N, Burleigh L, Scott CC, Verheije MH, Mercer J, Moese S, Heger T, Theusner K, Jurgeit A, Lamparter D, Balistreri G, Schelhaas M, De Haan CA, Marjomaki V, Hyypia T, Rottier PJ, Sodeik B, Marsh M, Gruenberg J, Amara A, Greber U, Helenius A, Pelkmans L. Single-Cell Analysis of Population Context Advances Rnai Screening at Multiple Levels. Mol Syst Biol. 2012;8:579.

Schipke J, Pohlmann A, Diestel R, Binz A, Rudolph K, Nagel CH, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. The C Terminus of the Large Tegument Protein Pul36 Contains Multiple Capsid Binding Sites That Function Differently During Assembly and Cell Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus. J Virol. 2012;86(7):3682-700.

Nagel CH, Dohner K, Binz A, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Improper Tagging of the Non-Essential Small Capsid Protein Vp26 Impairs Nuclear Capsid Egress of Herpes Simplex Virus. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e44177.


Rode K, Dohner K, Binz A, Glass M, Strive T, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Uncoupling Uncoating of Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes from Their Nuclear Import and Gene Expression. J Virol. 2011;85(9):4271-83.

Ibiricu I, Huiskonen JT, Dohner K, Bradke F, Sodeik B, Grunewald K. Cryo Electron Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus During Axonal Transport and Secondary Envelopment in Primary Neurons. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7(12):e1002406.


Radtke K, Kieneke D, Wolfstein A, Michael K, Steffen W, Scholz T, Karger A, Sodeik B. Plus- and Minus-End Directed Microtubule Motors Bind Simultaneously to Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Using Different Inner Tegument Structures. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6(7):e1000991.


Zhang J, Nagel CH, Sodeik B, Lippe R. Early, Active, and Specific Localization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Gm to Nuclear Membranes. J Virol. 2009;83(24):12984-97.

Roos WH, Radtke K, Kniesmeijer E, Geertsema H, Sodeik B, Wuite GJ. Scaffold Expulsion and Genome Packaging Trigger Stabilization of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(24):9673-8.

Jung C, Ruthardt N, Lewis R, Michaelis J, Sodeik B, Nolde F, Peneva K, Mullen K, Brauchle C. Photophysics of New Water-Soluble Terrylenediimide Derivatives and Applications in Biology. Chemphyschem. 2009;10(1):180-90.

Jirmo AC, Nagel CH, Bohnen C, Sodeik B, Behrens GM. Contribution of Direct and Cross-Presentation to Ctl Immunity against Herpes Simplex Virus 1. J Immunol. 2009;182(1):283-92.


Nagel CH, Dohner K, Fathollahy M, Strive T, Borst EM, Messerle M, Sodeik B. Nuclear Egress and Envelopment of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Analyzed with Dual-Color Fluorescence Hsv1(17+). J Virol. 2008;82(6):3109-24.

Maurer UE, Sodeik B, Grunewald K. Native 3d Intermediates of Membrane Fusion in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(30):10559-64.

Borst EM, Wagner K, Binz A, Sodeik B, Messerle M. The Essential Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Ul52 Is Required for Cleavage-Packaging of the Viral Genome. J Virol. 2008;82(5):2065-78.


Wolfstein A, Nagel CH, Radtke K, Dohner K, Allan VJ, Sodeik B. The Inner Tegument Promotes Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid Motility Along Microtubules in Vitro. Traffic. 2006;7(2):227-37.

Kollner I, Sodeik B, Schreek S, Heyn H, von Neuhoff N, Germeshausen M, Zeidler C, Kruger M, Schlegelberger B, Welte K, Beger C. Mutations in Neutrophil Elastase Causing Congenital Neutropenia Lead to Cytoplasmic Protein Accumulation and Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response. Blood. 2006;108(2):493-500.

Dohner K, Radtke K, Schmidt S, Sodeik B. Eclipse Phase of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: Efficient Dynein-Mediated Capsid Transport without the Small Capsid Protein Vp26. J Virol. 2006;80(16):8211-24.

This website uses cookies and the web analytics service Google Analytics. Click here for further information on privacy.
I agree