Transcriptional Control of Organogenesis

Objectives

Our research focuses on the genetic control mechanisms governing vertebrate development using the mouse as a model organism. More specifically, we are interested in gaining a better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes crucial in the development of mesodermally derived organs including heart, kidney and ureter. We use all techniques of modern cell and molecular biology in addition to embryological manipulations in the mouse as well as transgenics and targeted gene disruption to gain information on the mode of action of genes in vivo and in vitro. A major focus of our molecular work lies in the analysis of transcription factors of the Tbx-gene family in organogenesis.

Research Focus

Within REBIRTH, our work aims at obtaining deeper insight into the function of T-box genes in the development of the heart, the liver and the lung. By analysis of mice with loss-of-function alleles of Tbx genes, we have shown that Tbx2/Tbx3 are crucial players in branching morphogenesis of the lung, that Tbx3 is required for early liver development, and that Tbx2/Tbx3, Tbx18 and Tbx20 are crucial for regionalization of the heart into distinct chambers. Biochemical and molecular analyses of T-box proteins including the identification of protein interaction partners and target genes shall now provide a more detailed molecular understanding how these T-box transcription factors exert their tissue-specific function in control of lung growth (Tbx2/Tbx3), hepatobiliary fate decision (Tbx3) and cardiac inflow tract development (Tbx18). We also wish to identify the regulatory circuits, i.e. signaling pathways and transcriptional activities acting upstream, in parallel to, or downstream of Tbx genes in patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis of mesendodermal organs.

Collaborations

Further Research Projects

  • Outside the REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence we pursue various projects characterizing the genetic control of early limb, kidney, inner ear and particularly ureter organogenesis that are funded by the DFG, the EU and the Niedersachsen-Israel initiative: Function and regulation of Tbx18 in ureter development. Function of Wnt signaling in ureter development. Signaling in smooth muscle cell differentiation of the ureter. Tbx2/Tbx3 in lung and kidney development. Mesothelial mobilization and differentiation.

Awards

  • Rannar Airik, Price of the Symposium of the Ph.D. programme ‘Molecular Medicine’, Hannover (2006)
  • Thomas Grieskamp, Oliver Trowe, Andreas Kispert, Poster-Award of the Leibniz Symposium ‘Transplantation and Regeneration of Thoracic Organs’, LEBAO, Hannover (2006)
  • Manvendra Kumar Singh MHH PhDPrize ‘Molecular Medicine’ (2006)
  • Rannar Airik, MHH Ph.D.-Prize ‘Molecular Medicine’ (2008)
  • Henner Farin, PhD Prize of Hannover Medical School (2009)
  • Andreas Kispert, Ruysch Lecture, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam (2010)
  • Thomas Grieskamp, PhD Prize of Hannover Medical School (2011)
  • Julia Norden, PhD Prize of Hannover Medical School (2011)

Teaching

  • M.Sc. Biomedicine, B.Sc. Biology, Ph.D. programme

Publications

2013 - ongoing

2017

Bohnenpoll T, Feraric S, Nattkemper M, Weiss A-C, Rudat C, Meuser M, Trowe M-O, Kispert A. Diversification of Cell Lineages in Ureter Development. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2017;28(6):1792-801

Bohnenpoll T, Wittern AB, Mamo TM, Weiss A-C, Rudat C, Kleppa M-J, Schuster-Gossler K, Wojahn I, Lüdtke THW, Trowe M-O, Kispert A. A SHH-FOXF1-BMP4 signaling axis regulating growth and differentiation of epithelial and mesenchymal tissues in ureter development. PLoS Genetics. 2017;13(8):e1006951.

Kispert A. Chapter Nine - T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract. In: Frasch M, editor. Current Topics in Developmental Biology: Academic Press; 2017. p. 245-78.

Lee KY, Sharma R, Gase G, Ussar S, Li Y, Welch L, Berryman DE, Kispert A, Bluher M, Kahn CR. <em>Tbx15</em> Defines a Glycolytic Subpopulation and White Adipocyte Heterogeneity. Diabetes. 2017;66(11):2822.

Mamo TM, Wittern AB, Kleppa M-J, Bohnenpoll T, Weiss A-C, Kispert A. BMP4 uses several different effector pathways to regulate proliferation and differentiation in the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the developing mouse ureter. Human Molecular Genetics. 2017;26(18):3553-63.

Malek Mohammadi M, Kattih B, Grund A, Froese N, Korf-Klingebiel M, Gigina A, Schrameck U, Rudat C, Liang Q, Kispert A, Wollert KC, Bauersachs J, Heineke J. The transcription factor GATA4 promotes myocardial regeneration in neonatal mice. EMBO molecular medicine. 2017;9(2):265-79.

2016

Stoetzer C, Doll T, Stueber T, Herzog C, Echtermeyer F, Greulich F, Rudat C, Kispert A, Wegner F, Leffler A. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive alpha-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels are relevant for inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by local anesthetics. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2016;389(6):625-36.

Ludtke TH, Rudat C, Wojahn I, Weiss AC, Kleppa MJ, Kurz J, Farin HF, Moon A, Christoffels VM, Kispert A. Tbx2 and Tbx3 Act Downstream of Shh to Maintain Canonical Wnt Signaling during Branching Morphogenesis of the Murine Lung. Developmental cell. 2016;39(2):239-53.

Greulich F, Trowe MO, Leffler A, Stoetzer C, Farin HF, Kispert A. Misexpression of Tbx18 in cardiac chambers of fetal mice interferes with chamber-specific developmental programs but does not induce a pacemaker-like gene signature. Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology. 2016;97:140-9.

Greulich F, Rudat C, Farin HF, Christoffels VM, Kispert A. Lack of Genetic Interaction between Tbx18 and Tbx2/Tbx20 in Mouse Epicardial Development. PloS one. 2016;11(6):e0156787.

Arraf AA, Yelin R, Reshef I, Kispert A, Schultheiss TM. Establishment of the Visceral Embryonic Midline Is a Dynamic Process that Requires Bilaterally Symmetric BMP Signaling. Developmental cell. 2016;37(6):571-80.

2015

Andre P, Song H, Kim W, Kispert A, Yang Y. Wnt5a and Wnt11 Regulate Mammalian Anterior-Posterior Axis Elongation. Development. 2015;142(8):1516-27.

Vivante A, Kleppa MJ, Schulz J, Kohl S, Sharma A, Chen J, Shril S, Hwang DY, Weiss AC, Kaminski MM, Shukrun R, Kemper MJ, Lehnhardt A, Beetz R, Sanna-Cherchi S, Verbitsky M, Gharavi AG, Stuart HM, Feather SA, Goodship JA, Goodship TH, Woolf AS, Westra SJ, Doody DP, Bauer SB, Lee RS, Adam RM, Lu W, Reutter HM, Kehinde EO, Mancini EJ, Lifton RP, Tasic V, Lienkamp SS, Juppner H, Kispert A, Hildebrandt F. Mutations in Tbx18 Cause Dominant Urinary Tract Malformations Via Transcriptional Dysregulation of Ureter Development. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;97(2):291-301.

Lee KY, Singh MK, Ussar S, Wetzel P, Hirshman MF, Goodyear LJ, Kispert A, Kahn CR. Tbx15 Controls Skeletal Muscle Fibre-Type Determination and Muscle Metabolism. Nat Commun. 2015;6:8054.

Weiss AC, Kispert A. Eph/Ephrin Signaling in the Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract. Pediatr Nephrol. 2015.

Mobus S, Yang D, Yuan Q, Ludtke TH, Balakrishnan A, Sgodda M, Rani B, Kispert A, Arauzo-Bravo MJ, Vogel A, Manns MP, Ott M, Cantz T, Sharma AD. Microrna-199a-5p Inhibition Enhances the Liver Repopulation Ability of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatic Cells. J Hepatol. 2015;62(1):101-10.

Hafner R, Bohnenpoll T, Rudat C, Schultheiss TM, Kispert A. Fgfr2 Is Required for the Expansion of the Early Adrenocortical Primordium. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;413:168-77. Epub 2015/07/05.

2014

Bohnenpoll T, Trowe MO, Wojahn I, Taketo MM, Petry M, Kispert A. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates the Proliferative Expansion and Differentiation of Fibrocytes in the Murine Inner Ear. Dev Biol. 2014;391(1):54-65.

Weiss AC, Airik R, Bohnenpoll T, Greulich F, Foik A, Trowe MO, Rudat C, Costantini F, Adams RH, Kispert A. Nephric Duct Insertion Requires Epha4/Epha7 Signaling from the Pericloacal Mesenchyme. Development. 2014;141(17):3420-30.

Morosan-Puopolo G, Balakrishnan-Renuka A, Yusuf F, Chen J, Dai F, Zoidl G, Ludtke TH, Kispert A, Theiss C, Abdelsabour-Khalaf M, Brand-Saberi B. Wnt11 Is Required for Oriented Migration of Dermogenic Progenitor Cells from the Dorsomedial Lip of the Avian Dermomyotome. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92679. Epub 2014/03/29.

Airik R, Slaats GG, Guo Z, Weiss AC, Khan N, Ghosh A, Hurd TW, Bekker-Jensen S, Schroder JM, Elledge SJ, Andersen JS, Kispert A, Castelli M, Boletta A, Giles RH, Hildebrandt F. Renal-Retinal Ciliopathy Gene Sdccag8 Regulates DNA Damage Response Signaling. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25(11):2573-83.

Briot A, Jaroszewicz A, Warren CM, Lu J, Touma M, Rudat C, Hofmann JJ, Airik R, Weinmaster G, Lyons K, Wang Y, Kispert A, Pellegrini M, Iruela-Arispe ML. Repression of Sox9 by Jag1 Is Continuously Required to Suppress the Default Chondrogenic Fate of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Dev Cell. 2014;31(6):707-21. Epub 2014/12/24.

Bolt CC, Elso CM, Lu X, Pan F, Kispert A, Stubbs L. A Distant Downstream Enhancer Directs Essential Expression of Tbx18 in Urogenital Tissues. Dev Biol. 2014;392(2):483-93.

Bohnenpoll T, Kispert A. Ureter Growth and Differentiation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014;36:21-30.

Chowdhury A, Herzog C, Hasselbach L, Khouzani HL, Zhang J, Hammerschmidt M, Rudat C, Kispert A, Gaestel M, Menon MB, Tudorache I, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Muhlfeld C, Schmitto JD, Muller M, Theilmeier G. Expression of Fibulin-6 in Failing Hearts and Its Role for Cardiac Fibroblast Migration. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;103(4):509-20.

Rudat C, Grieskamp T, Rohr C, Airik R, Wrede C, Hegermann J, Herrmann BG, Schuster-Gossler K, Kispert A. Upk3b Is Dispensable for Development and Integrity of Urothelium and Mesothelium. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112112.

2013

Rudat C, Norden J, Taketo MM, Kispert A. Epicardial Function of Canonical Wnt-, Hedgehog-, Fgfr1/2-, and Pdgfra-Signalling. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100(3):411-21.

Martin E, Caubit X, Airik R, Vola C, Fatmi A, Kispert A, Fasano L. Tshz3 and Sox9 Regulate the Timing of Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation in the Ureter by Reducing Myocardin Activity. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63721.

Schaale K, Brandenburg J, Kispert A, Leitges M, Ehlers S, Reiling N. Wnt6 Is Expressed in Granulomatous Lesions of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis-Infected Mice and Is Involved in Macrophage Differentiation and Proliferation. Journal of Immunology. 2013;191(10):5182-95. Epub 2013/10/15.

Mommersteeg MT, Andrews WD, Ypsilanti AR, Zelina P, Yeh ML, Norden J, Kispert A, Chedotal A, Christoffels VM, Parnavelas JG. Slit-Roundabout Signaling Regulates the Development of the Cardiac Systemic Venous Return and Pericardium. Circ Res. 2013;112(3):465-75.

Greulich F, Kispert A. Epicardial Lineages. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2013;1(1):32.

Trowe MO, Zhao L, Weiss AC, Christoffels V, Epstein DJ, Kispert A. Inhibition of Sox2-Dependent Activation of Shh in the Ventral Diencephalon by Tbx3 Is Required for Formation of the Neurohypophysis. Development. 2013;140(11):2299-309. Epub 2013/05/16.

Wang Q, Lu J, Zhang S, Wang S, Wang W, Wang B, Wang F, Chen Q, Duan E, Leitges M, Kispert A, Wang H. Wnt6 Is Essential for Stromal Cell Proliferation During Decidualization in Mice. Biology of Reproduction. 2013;88(1):5. Epub 2012/11/24.

Seidl S, Braun U, Roos N, Li S, Ludtke TH, Kispert A, Leitges M. Phenotypical Analysis of Atypical Pkcs in Vivo Function Display a Compensatory System at Mouse Embryonic Day 7.5. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62756.

Ludtke TH, Farin HF, Rudat C, Schuster-Gossler K, Petry M, Barnett P, Christoffels VM, Kispert A. Tbx2 Controls Lung Growth by Direct Repression of the Cell Cycle Inhibitor Genes Cdkn1a and Cdkn1b. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(1):e1003189.

Farin HF, Ludtke TH, Schmidt MK, Placzko S, Schuster-Gossler K, Petry M, Christoffels VM, Kispert A. Tbx2 Terminates Shh/Fgf Signaling in the Developing Mouse Limb Bud by Direct Repression of Gremlin1. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(4):e1003467.

Bohnenpoll T, Bettenhausen E, Weiss AC, Foik AB, Trowe MO, Blank P, Airik R, Kispert A. Tbx18 Expression Demarcates Multipotent Precursor Populations in the Developing Urogenital System but Is Exclusively Required within the Ureteric Mesenchymal Lineage to Suppress a Renal Stromal Fate. Dev Biol. 2013;380(1):25-36.

2006 - 2012

2012

Kispert A, Gossler A. Chapter 2.1 - Early Mouse Development. In: Hedrich HJ, editor. The Laboratory Mouse (Second Edition). Boston: Academic Press; 2012. p. 117-43.

Norden J, Grieskamp T, Christoffels VM, Moorman AF, Kispert A. Partial Absence of Pleuropericardial Membranes in Tbx18- and Wt1-Deficient Mice. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45100.

Kispert A. No Muscle for a Damaged Heart: Thymosin Beta 4 Treatment after Myocardial Infarction Does Not Induce Myocardial Differentiation of Epicardial Cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52(1):10-2. Epub 2011/10/25.

Greulich F, Farin HF, Schuster-Gossler K, Kispert A. Tbx18 Function in Epicardial Development. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96(3):476-83.

Rabe TI, Griesel G, Blanke S, Kispert A, Leitges M, van der Zwaag B, Burbach JP, Varoqueaux F, Mansouri A. The Transcription Factor Uncx4.1 Acts in a Short Window of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation. Neural Dev. 2012;7:39.

Singh R, Hoogaars WM, Barnett P, Grieskamp T, Rana MS, Buermans H, Farin HF, Petry M, Heallen T, Martin JF, Moorman AF, t Hoen PA, Kispert A, Christoffels VM. Tbx2 and Tbx3 Induce Atrioventricular Myocardial Development and Endocardial Cushion Formation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69(8):1377-89.

Trowe MO, Airik R, Weiss AC, Farin HF, Foik AB, Bettenhausen E, Schuster-Gossler K, Taketo MM, Kispert A. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Smooth Muscle Precursor Development in the Mouse Ureter. Development. 2012;139(17):3099-108.

Volker LA, Petry M, Abdelsabour-Khalaf M, Schweizer H, Yusuf F, Busch T, Schermer B, Benzing T, Brand-Saberi B, Kretz O, Hohne M, Kispert A. Comparative Analysis of Neph Gene Expression in Mouse and Chicken Development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137(3):355-66.

Norden J, Kispert A. Wnt/Ctnnb1 Signaling and the Mesenchymal Precursor Pools of the Heart. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2012;22(5):118-22.

Rudat C, Kispert A. Wt1 and Epicardial Fate Mapping. Circ Res. 2012;111(2):165-9.

2011

Merveille AC, Davis EE, Becker-Heck A, Legendre M, Amirav I, Bataille G, Belmont J, Beydon N, Billen F, Clement A, Clercx C, Coste A, Crosbie R, de Blic J, Deleuze S, Duquesnoy P, Escalier D, Escudier E, Fliegauf M, Horvath J, Hill K, Jorissen M, Just J, Kispert A, Lathrop M, Loges NT, Marthin JK, Momozawa Y, Montantin G, Nielsen KG, Olbrich H, Papon JF, Rayet I, Roger G, Schmidts M, Tenreiro H, Towbin JA, Zelenika D, Zentgraf H, Georges M, Lequarre AS, Katsanis N, Omran H, Amselem S. Ccdc39 Is Required for Assembly of Inner Dynein Arms and the Dynein Regulatory Complex and for Normal Ciliary Motility in Humans and Dogs. Nat Genet. 2011;43(1):72-8. Epub 2010/12/07.

Greulich F, Rudat C, Kispert A. Mechanisms of T-Box Gene Function in the Developing Heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91(2):212-22.

Froese N, Kattih B, Breitbart A, Grund A, Geffers R, Molkentin JD, Kispert A, Wollert KC, Drexler H, Heineke J. Gata6 Promotes Angiogenic Function and Survival in Endothelial Cells by Suppression of Autocrine Transforming Growth Factor Beta/Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 5 Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(7):5680-90.

Trowe MO, Maier H, Petry M, Schweizer M, Schuster-Gossler K, Kispert A. Impaired Stria Vascularis Integrity Upon Loss of E-Cadherin in Basal Cells. Dev Biol. 2011;359(1):95-107. Epub 2011/09/20.

Heeringa SF, Chernin G, Chaki M, Zhou W, Sloan AJ, Ji Z, Xie LX, Salviati L, Hurd TW, Vega-Warner V, Killen PD, Raphael Y, Ashraf S, Ovunc B, Schoeb DS, McLaughlin HM, Airik R, Vlangos CN, Gbadegesin R, Hinkes B, Saisawat P, Trevisson E, Doimo M, Casarin A, Pertegato V, Giorgi G, Prokisch H, Rotig A, Nurnberg G, Becker C, Wang S, Ozaltin F, Topaloglu R, Bakkaloglu A, Bakkaloglu SA, Muller D, Beissert A, Mir S, Berdeli A, Varpizen S, Zenker M, Matejas V, Santos-Ocana C, Navas P, Kusakabe T, Kispert A, Akman S, Soliman NA, Krick S, Mundel P, Reiser J, Nurnberg P, Clarke CF, Wiggins RC, Faul C, Hildebrandt F. Coq6 Mutations in Human Patients Produce Nephrotic Syndrome with Sensorineural Deafness. J Clin Invest. 2011;121(5):2013-24.

Grieskamp T, Rudat C, Ludtke TH, Norden J, Kispert A. Notch Signaling Regulates Smooth Muscle Differentiation of Epicardium-Derived Cells. Circ Res. 2011;108(7):813-23.

Norden J, Greulich F, Rudat C, Taketo MM, Kispert A. Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Maintains the Mesenchymal Precursor Pool for Murine Sinus Horn Formation. Circ Res. 2011;109(6):e42-50.

2010

Norden J, Grieskamp T, Lausch E, van Wijk B, van den Hoff MJ, Englert C, Petry M, Mommersteeg MT, Christoffels VM, Niederreither K, Kispert A. Wt1 and Retinoic Acid Signaling in the Subcoelomic Mesenchyme Control the Development of the Pleuropericardial Membranes and the Sinus Horns. Circ Res. 2010;106(7):1212-20.

Mommersteeg MT, Dominguez JN, Wiese C, Norden J, de Gier-de Vries C, Burch JB, Kispert A, Brown NA, Moorman AF, Christoffels VM. The Sinus Venosus Progenitors Separate and Diversify from the First and Second Heart Fields Early in Development. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87(1):92-101.

Christoffels VM, Smits GJ, Kispert A, Moorman AF. Development of the Pacemaker Tissues of the Heart. Circ Res. 2010;106(2):240-54.

Aanhaanen WT, Mommersteeg MT, Norden J, Wakker V, de Gier-de Vries C, Anderson RH, Kispert A, Moorman AF, Christoffels VM. Developmental Origin, Growth, and Three-Dimensional Architecture of the Atrioventricular Conduction Axis of the Mouse Heart. Circ Res. 2010;107(6):728-36.

Singh R, Kispert A. Tbx20, Smads, and the Atrioventricular Canal. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010;20(4):109-14.

2009

Christoffels VM, Grieskamp T, Norden J, Mommersteeg MT, Rudat C, Kispert A. Tbx18 and the Fate of Epicardial Progenitors. Nature. 2009;458(7240):E8-9; discussion E-10.

Kobayashi K, Luo M, Zhang Y, Wilkes DC, Ge G, Grieskamp T, Yamada C, Liu T-C, Huang G, Basson CT, Kispert A, Greenspan DS, Sato TN. Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 2 Is a Procollagen C Proteinase Enhancer with a Role in Myocardial Infarction-Associated Fibrosis. Nature cell biology. 2009;11(1):46-55.

Aanhaanen WT, Brons JF, Dominguez JN, Rana MS, Norden J, Airik R, Wakker V, de Gier-de Vries C, Brown NA, Kispert A, Moorman AF, Christoffels VM. The Tbx2+ Primary Myocardium of the Atrioventricular Canal Forms the Atrioventricular Node and the Base of the Left Ventricle. Circ Res. 2009;104(11):1267-74.

Ludtke TH, Christoffels VM, Petry M, Kispert A. Tbx3 Promotes Liver Bud Expansion During Mouse Development by Suppression of Cholangiocyte Differentiation. Hepatology. 2009;49(3):969-78.

Wiese C, Grieskamp T, Airik R, Mommersteeg MT, Gardiwal A, de Gier-de Vries C, Schuster-Gossler K, Moorman AF, Kispert A, Christoffels VM. Formation of the Sinus Node Head and Differentiation of Sinus Node Myocardium Are Independently Regulated by Tbx18 and Tbx3. Circ Res. 2009;104(3):388-97.

Singh R, Horsthuis T, Farin HF, Grieskamp T, Norden J, Petry M, Wakker V, Moorman AF, Christoffels VM, Kispert A. Tbx20 Interacts with Smads to Confine Tbx2 Expression to the Atrioventricular Canal. Circ Res. 2009;105(5):442-52.

2008

Farin HF, Mansouri A, Petry M, Kispert A. T-Box Protein Tbx18 Interacts with the Paired Box Protein Pax3 in the Development of the Paraxial Mesoderm. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(37):25372-80.

Winkler ME, Mauritz C, Groos S, Kispert A, Menke S, Hoffmann A, Gruh I, Schwanke K, Haverich A, Martin U. Serum-Free Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells into Alveolar Type Ii Epithelial Cells. Cloning Stem Cells. 2008;10(1):49-64.

Lausch E, Hermanns P, Farin HF, Alanay Y, Unger S, Nikkel S, Steinwender C, Scherer G, Spranger J, Zabel B, Kispert A, Superti-Furga A. Tbx15 Mutations Cause Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Hypoplasia of Scapula and Pelvis, and Short Stature in Cousin Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;83(5):649-55.

2007

Farin HF, Bussen M, Schmidt MK, Singh MK, Schuster-Gossler K, Kispert A. Transcriptional Repression by the T-Box Proteins Tbx18 and Tbx15 Depends on Groucho Corepressors. J Biol Chem. 2007;282(35):25748-5

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