Laser Printing


The goal of biofabrication and tissue engineering is to generate fully functional autologous tissue or – later – complete organs. Therefore, living cells and biomaterials have to be arranged in three-dimensional patterns mimicking the natural archetype. Biological Laser Printing provides unique possibilities for the deposition of different living cells and biomaterials in a well-defined 3D structure.

Research Focus

This research group is using a laser-printing technique to arrange cells in two or three-dimensional patterns for replicating biological tissue. For this purpose, the biological material was deposited on an absorption layer placed on a glass slide. The laser was focused through the glass into the absorption layer, which immediately underwent local evaporation. Vaporization pressure caused the biological material to be propelled in the direction of the laser beam onto a second glass slide. By moving the glass slides relative to the laser, the material can be arranged in a preset 2D pattern and layer-by-layer in a 3D pattern. Furthermore, cells have also been printed into different 3D scaffolds.

It was shown that different cells (cell lines, primary cells and stem cells [porcine, human]) survive the printing process unharmed with rates of nearly 100%. No increase in apoptosis or DNA fragmentation occurs and no influence on proliferation was measured. The differentiation behavior of stem cells is not affected.

This printing technique was used to generate skin tissue from dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. It was demonstrated that the cells formed intercellular adherens junctions and functional gap junctions, which is seen as a proof for tissue formation.

Besides the generation of tissue, this technique was also used to arrange cells in specific patterns to study cell-cell and cell-environment interactions.


  • Prof. A. Haverich, M. Pflaum, Hannover Medical School, LEBAO, REBIRTH Unit Bioartificial Lung, Printing different cell types in arrays for investigating cell-cell interactions + Transfer of endothelial cells on different supporting structures to form artificial vessels
  • Dr. A. Schambach, Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Unit Regenerative Gene Therapy, Printing of transfected cells for long-term investigations of cell migration
  • Dr. H. Meyer, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., REBIRTH Unit Laser Manipulation and Cellular Engineering, Dr. A. Loos, BioMedimplant, REBIRTH Unit Biocompatibility, Prof. E. Ponimaskin, Hannover Medical School, Visualization of printed 3D cell structures
  • Prof. B. Glasmacher, Leibniz University of Hannover, REBIRTH Unit Cell Protection Technology, Cell seeding of scaffolds with LIFT-technique, Transfer of different cells with LIFT and subsequent biological analysis, investigating mechanical properties of printed structures
  • Dr. F. Limbourg, Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Unit Regenerative Agents, Printing vascular tubes for analysis of signaling pathways and tubulogenesis.
  • Prof. P. Vogt, Hannover Medical School, PHW, Generation of artificial skin with fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in vivo testing
  • Prof. G. Steinhoff, University of Rostock, FKGO, Transfer of human mesenchymal stem cells to populate heart valves and cardiac patches
  • Prof. S. Jockenhövel, RWTH Aachen, Generation of modified three-dimensional fibrin structures

Further Research Projects

  • Anschlussfinanzierung zum SFB Transregio 37 des Niedersächsischen Ministeriums für Wissenschaft und Kultur
  • Biofabrication for NIFE, Niedersächsisches Vorab, Volkswagen Stiftung


  • Lecture ‘Photonics’ at Leibniz University of Hannover, Prof. B. Chichkov 

Equipment and Service Facilities

[Please find a list of all available equipment here]


[Please find the publications of this workgroup here]

Further Information


Koch, Lothar Dr. l.koch(at)
Schlie, Sabrina s.schlie(at)
Deiwick, Andrea a.deiwick(at)
Laser printed 3D cell array for analysis of cell-cell and cell-environment interactions
This website uses cookies and the web analytics service Google Analytics. Click here for further information on privacy.
I agree